June Juxtapositions


Welcome back to Thebeerchaser. If you are seeing this post through an e-mail, please visit the blog by clicking on the title above to see all of the photos and so the narrative is not clipped or shortened.  External photo attribution at the end of the post.  (#1 – #2)

In my last blog post entitled “May Meanderings,” I wrote about my favorite brewery – the Benedictine Brewery at the Mount Angel Abbey and Seminary and its Head Brewer, Father Martin Grassel. 

Also about the 2022 movie, “Father Stu: Reborn” and the late priest’s connection with Mount Angel.  And finally about the post pandemic travails of a wonderful dive bar I first visited in 2015 – Kelly’s Olympian – another example of the City of Portland’s ineffective and frustrating efforts to keep its businesses operational and its citizens safe.


The word is defined as:

“The act or an instance of placing two or more things side by side, often to compare or contrast or to create an interesting effect.”

I’ll try to do a bit of that in this post, but regardless of whether that succeeds, the title satisfies my affinity for alliteration.

I worked for twenty-five years on the mid-level floors of the PacWest Center – a great thirty-story skyscraper in Portland’s Central Business District. The Schwabe, Williamson & Wyatt firm at one time occupied five floors and had about 130 lawyers – the anchor of our four branch offices.

The building’s proximity to the courts, government buildings and amenities made it a very desirable location. There were also great views and the expansive floor plate was conducive to functional and attractive designs for professional service firms.  And who can complain about a large Starbucks, a bar and at one time, a good restaurant – all – only an elevator ride away.

In a previous post, I mentioned the filming of parts of the movie “The Last Innocent Man” based on the novel by Portland’s best-selling author, Phillip Margolin, in addition to a commercial or two.

I’ve also gotten a chuckle on the “use” of the building in CBS’ comedy drama “So Help Me Todd,” which stars actress Marcia Gay Harden as a lawyer in a large Portland law firm.

The storyline makes anyone familiar with actual law firm operations and professional rules cringe, but it’s a fun series.  The exterior of the PacWest Center is often shown along with fleeting glimpses of Portland landmarks, but scenes of the law firm interior are evidently filmed in Vancouver, BC.

The PacWest Center also has character.  For example, the recent article entitled, “This Portland pine may be the world’s tallest tree planted on top of a high rise:” (#3 – #4)

“Standing approximately 40 feet tall, the pine prominently planted atop the Pacwest Center’s 25th-floor terrace could be the tallest tree growing from any high-rise rooftop on Earth.

Commuters anywhere southwest of Jefferson Street and 6th Avenue are bound to notice the coniferous evergreen towering above Downtown traffic. Planted shortly after the office building’s completion in 1984, the tree has quietly matured with the Portland skyline, drawing little attention in the last four decades.”

The article raised speculation about the height of the tree, but KOIN TV which published the story, went to the best source, John Russell, President of Russell Development Co. in Portland.  He was the developer of the PacWest Center and has both engineering degrees and an MBA from Harvard Business School.

“Russell said that the PacWest Center’s alternating exterior of silver paneling and tinted windows can be used like a measuring stick, which can give a rough estimate of the tree’s height. ‘It’s easy,’ Russell said. ‘The total of the two layers is 13 feet.’

With the tree extending roughly six layers high, it can be surmised that the tree is approximately 40 feet tall. Russell told KOIN 6 News that the tree was four or five feet tall when it was placed in the terrace’s metal planter bed. He and his wife Mary Fellows still look up at the PacWest Center and enjoy the pine tree for the oddity that it is.

‘The tree just delights me,’ Russell said. ‘It’s quirky and fun.'”

And if there is doubt about future ability of the floor plate to handle the weight of the tree, I suggest they contact John to do the stress calculations….

I was fortunate to get to know John Russell through his association with our law firm and civic work with the City Club of Portland.  And there are few if any in the Northwest with the long record of public service comparable to John’s. 

Among the boards and commissions on which he has been a member include the Portland Development Commission, the Oregon Transportation Commission, the Mayor’s Business Roundtable (Chair from 1993 to 2003), the Portland City Planning Commission and the Portland Historic Landmark Commission.

He has also served as Chair of the Oregon Investment Council. “He is known for supporting diversity and inclusion in his evaluation of investment pitches.” (Wikita.com) (#5 – #6)

I loved hearing John’s stories about him and the late John Schwabe – one of our law firm’s named partners, an Oklahoma boy and a genuine War World II hero from the Battle of Guadalcanal and other battles in the South Pacific.  (“For his military service, Schwabe was awarded a Silver Star, five Bronze Stars and a Presidential Citation for Valor.”)

The two went back to Wall Street to talk to the New York investment bankers in a successful effort to obtain financing for the PacWest Center. John Russell is the epitome of an outstanding citizen and businessman.

High Rises?

But with the pandemic and the recent trend of remote work, the future of high rise buildings raises many questions. A January, 2023 article in the Bend Bulletin stated, “U.S. Bancorp Tower, Oregon’s largest office building, faces loss of two major tenants.” 

The situation may have changed since publication, but still signals a change not only in Portland, but in cities throughout the country.

“Portland law firm Miller Nash and Bay Area internet pollster SurveyMonkey are leaving the U.S. Bancorp Tower.

The moves will leave about 100,000 square feet of vacant office space in the iconic ‘Big Pink,’ Oregon’s second tallest building and its largest office building, and suggests the recent weakness of the downtown office market will continue in 2023.” (#7)


“Big Pink”

On May 7th, Oregon Live asked: “Portland office vacancies have nearly doubled since the pandemic; Will return-to-office plans reverse that?”  Other law and professional service firms using the remote-hybrid model will certainly consider reducing office space when leases expire.

The May 12, 2023 Morning Brew summarized the situation in New York City and what steps should be taken if this trend continues:

“How much empty office space does New York City have right now? Enough to fill more than 26 Empire State Buildings (about 74.6 million square feet, if you want to be specific).

Researchers Edward Glaeser and Carlo Ratti made the comparison to emphasize how NYC and other large American cities need to make drastic changes to their zoning laws to adapt to the WFH era. The ultimate goal should be to become a ‘Playground City” where people live, work, and play all in the same neighborhood. (#8)

Playground City?

While I love the City of Portland, I’m not very optimistic about us becoming a “Playground City” referenced in the article above, much less returning to a vibrant metropolis that attracts tourists and beckons to those in surrounding areas to patronize businesses and hospitality establishments.

When a June 2, 2023 Oregonian article is entitled,

“Open-air drug use is at an all-time high’ in downtown Portland: Police turn to citations as fentanyl crisis explodes.”

it diminishes confidence in current efforts. 

And there is widespread agreement that it will take more effective leadership by the Mayor, City Council, District Attorney, Governor, State Legislators, public sector unions, business leaders and the Portland Police Department, Police Union, the homelessness bureaucracy and homelessness advocates of all sides, churches as well as, non-profits, among others to compromise and develop creative solutions. (#9 – #10)

Does that seem insurmountable?  Well, I still pray for World Peace and solutions to Global Warming!!  And with the amount of funds already approved to address the problem, the solutions are not for lack of resources – at least to make strong steps forward. 

Remote Work

Before closing, I want to offer one more opinion (rant) about this trend.  While I’m an old guy, I still believe the trend to largely vacant workplaces where most people work on-line should be reversed or at least moderated.  

While necessary during the pandemic and offering some distinct advantages – environmentally, economically, lifestyle and for working parents – we need to ask “What’s  the ultimate cost?” (#11)


Is it healthy for organizations not to have a sense of community, in-office mentoring and comradery?  And are the purported productivity gains real or imaginary?  Review a recent Bloomberg News article entitled “Remote Work May Come with Daytime Drug and Drinking Habits:”

Some of the statistics cited are stunning and alarming and at least raise questions:

“A May 2022 study by Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta estimates that the number of working age Americans (25-54 years old) with substance abuse disorders has risen by 23% since pre-pandemic, to 27 million.  A figure that’s about one in six of people who were employed around the time of the study.

Drug recover firm Sierra Tucson concluded from a November 2021 survey that about 20% of US workers admitted to using recreational drugs while working remotely, and also to being under the influence during virtual meetings.

Quit Genius found in August 2022 that one in five believe that substance use has affected their work performance, also according to a survey…..Though back-to-office mandates are unpopular for many reasons, addiction experts note that resistance consistently comes from millions of addicted employees.”

And Finally…

Consistent with the concept of “placing two or more things side by side, often to compare or contrast or to create an interesting effect,” let me suggest two options if you do decide to commute back to the office:  (#12 – #13)

And to end on an upbeat note after some sobering narrative, I leave with this quote which I loved from one of my favorite authors – John Sandford – in his novel Field of Prey:

“The day was another good one, with fair-weather clouds floating overhead and warm and humid. Here and there, in the ditches, the sumac was showing orange leaves and the dust from gravel roads hung in the air for a while, as it does on the windless humid days; a good day not to be dead.”  (Emphasis supplied – Page 141 – #14 – #15)


External Photo Attribution

#1.  Public Domain – Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mountain_peaks_under_snow.jpg) This work has been released into the public domain by its author, G%C3%BCrkan Seng%C3%BCn. This applies worldwide.  Author:  G%C3%BCrkan Seng%C3%BCn.

#2.  Public Domain – Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Waves_breaking_on_ocean_coast.jpg)  This work has been released into the public domain by its author, Rosendahl. This applies worldwide. Author: Rosendahl.

#3. – #4.  Photos courtesy of Dan R. Swift, SIOR, CCIM –  Senior Vice President
CBRE | Advisory and Transaction Services – Investor and Occupier.

#5.  Willamette Week (Oregon Investment Council Member Blasts Elite Fund Manager For Lack of Diversity (wweek.com) 6/20/18

#6. The Oregonian obituaries (https://obits.oregonlive.com/us/obituaries/oregon/name/john-schwabe-obituary?id=27054738)

#7.  Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MtTaborPortlandHood.jpg) Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Author:  Cacophony – 30 May 2007.

#8.  Public Domain – Wikimedia Commons (File:Empire State Building (aerial view).jpg – Wikimedia Commons)  The author died in 1952, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author’s life plus 70 years or fewer.  Author:  Sam Valadi – 17 July 2012.

#9. Public Domain – Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Seized_drug_equipment_Forum_Marinum.JPG)
I, the copyright holder of this work, release this work into the public domain. This applies worldwide.  Author: MKFI – 26 August 2012.

#10.  Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Homeless_in_New_York_City..jpg) Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.  Author:  Adjoajo – 31 December 1969.

#11. Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Woman_Working_from_Home_during_Maternity_Leave.jpg) Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.  Author: CIPHR Connect – 21 August 2001.

#12. Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1950_Schwinn_Spitfire.jpg)  Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. Author: https://www.flickr.com/photos/bs/ – 6 October 2006.

#13.  Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Electric_Bicycle_Adventure_06_23_2021_(51267213401).jpg

#14.  Public Domain – Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Skunkbush_sumac_

(Rhus_trilobata)_on_Seedskadee_National_Wildlife_Refuge_(37332909495).jpg) This image or recording is the work of a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service employee, taken or made as part of that person’s official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain. For more information, see the Fish and Wildlife Service copyright policy. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. Author:
USFWS Mountain-Prairie
– 13 September 2017.

#15. Public Domain – Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tamsa.JPG)  I, the copyright holder of this work, release this work into the public domain. This applies worldwide. Author: Ingvar Pärnamäe (Õväküvä) – 27 July 2010.


May Meanderings

(Welcome back to Thebeerchaser. If you are seeing this post through an e-mail, please visit the blog by clicking on the title above to see all of the photos and so the narrative is not clipped or shortened. 

Pappy’s – That’s all there is to it!

This is a blog about bars, saloons and breweries – colloquially labeled as “watering holes” – not bistros or cafes.  I’ve made a few exceptions where a great bar is located within a restaurant, but only for those of historic significance. 

These have essentially been restricted to the McMenamin establishments which reek of history – the White Eagle Saloon, the St. John’s Pub, the Old Church and the Fulton Pub.

The following is an exception, however, because of the compelling character of both the bistro and the owner.  It’s not a bar – I don’t even know if they serve any alcohol, but Pappy’s  Greasy Spoon in the heart of Canby –  a small town in semi-rural Clackamas County about twenty-five miles south of Portland  – is a destination I would unequivocally recommend.

And it’s not that often when the charisma and personality of the owner are so integrated with the overall character of the bar, that it becomes a focal point and the highlight of the visit. 

Those I remember from my eleven years of Beerchasing are John Runkle of the Dirty Shame Saloon in Yaak, Montana and the others all in or near Portland.

There’s Adam Milne, the entrepreneurial owner of Portland’s Old Town Brewing; the late Mayor Bud Clark and his unforgettable Goose Hollow Inn and former Irish soap opera actor, Tom O’Leary, the owner of T.C. O’Leary’s.

I can’t forget amiable Amy Nichols of the Cheerful Tortoise and Cheerful Bullpen; the inimitable Frank “The Flake” Peters of the Grand Cafe (RIP) and last but not least Patrick Whitmore, the generous and down-home, cowboy-hat wearing owner of the Beavercreek Saloon (formerly Buffalo Bill’s and Kissin Kate’s in rural Clackamas County.)

I heard the stories of the grit and determination it took to open and manage their bars from each of the individuals above and pictured below, while I was at their establishments and they were unique and rewarding to hear.

Beerchasing Icons

From top left clockwise:  John Runkle, Adam Milne, Tom O’Leary, Frank Peters, Patrick Whitmore, Amy Nichols and Mayor Bud Clark

However, on my May 4th birthday, I met another icon like those above – this one at Pappy’s Greasy Spoon where I had breakfast with two former work colleagues – Dick Templeman and Walt Duddington.   

Dick, who is now retired in Canby, was the first manager (Director of Operations) I hired when I started working at the Schwabe law firm in 1985.  We worked together until I retired in 2010 and he was outstanding at his job.

Walt was a skilled technology consultant, who saved our bacon on a number of projects.  And speaking of bacon, see below.

Pappy came over and spent twenty minutes relating his story and just chatting with us – at the end being joined by his wife, Lisa.  But first he thanked Dick for supporting the business during the pandemic years when takeout was the only option much of the time.

While you can get an excellent burger or fried chicken sandwich with a milk shake before their 2:00 PM closing time, the specialty is breakfast of “generous” portions which Pappy’s starts serving at 6:00 A.M.

Before telling you more about Pappy’s and maybe out of a sense of guilt, I should tell you about my breakfast that day as it probably shortened my life by several years.  That said, I would do it again. 

The Riley Special for only $9.00, is two eggs, four strips of bacon (or sausage), hash browns (or red potatoes) and two slices of toast (with jam). At least I didn’t have the biscuits and gravy…but as a recent article in Oregon Life stated:

“:…this isn’t a place for those who are counting calories or watching their cholesterol. This is classic American diner food in its truest form. “

Birthday bacon, itself, is worth remembering but as stated in one of the many articles:

“But what makes Pappy’s truly exceptional is Pappy himself (whose real name is Mike Merrill), who’s owned and run the diner for over 20 years and absolutely loves what he does.

The business originally started in a bowling alley, Canby Bowl, which has since closed down and has been replaced with an O’Reilly Auto Parts.” (Oregon Live 4/18/23)

Photo May 04 2023, 9 44 39 AM

Pappy told us that he and his first wife moved to Oregon from New Hampshire. He’s had the business for over twenty years.  Walking into Pappy’s is taking a trip back to the classic diners of the 50’s. 

The long counter with red stools reminded me of the drugstore where I used to get nickel Cokes after my Oregon Journal paper route in Oregon City was finished.

And speaking of Coca Cola, much of the memorabilia (which he states is about 90% donated – even some from the East Coast) is Coke related. 

There’s numerous Coke signs, a clock, an upside umbrella hanging from the ceiling and best of all, an antique Coke cooler which I assume still functions because there are current bottles of Coke underneath it. 

Don’t forget the Aunt Jemima sign and the photos of celebrities’ ranging from Elvis to Nat King Cole to Danny Thomas and Al Hirt to name just a few.

Pappy stares out from galley where he cooks hundreds of breakfasts each week and periodically walks out like an army general to greet his customers who are already being giving loving attention by his servers including Lisa.   

He told us that his first wife died a number of years ago from an extended illness, but Lisa, who was working as a server became a friend and then a perfect match. They were married about five years ago.

Dick said the wedding was held in a large vacant room down the hallway, but the reception was in the diner: 

“Marilyn and I attended along with half the town.  It was standing room only.  Fun time.”

Pappy’s is well worth a visit, but it may require a wait.  It’s worth it!

Pandemic Recovery Challenges Continue

In my last two posts I wrote about the number of bars and breweries that struggled during the pandemic and listed a number of my favorites which are no longer in business. 

One would think the challenges are largely past, however, the City of Portland unfortunately and to the detriment of business owners, has not recovered to the extent of other major US cities. 

While it’s easy to point fingers and there have been unprecedented challenges, most citizens feel that elected officials, most notably the Portland Mayor and City Council and the District Attorney of Multnomah County fell down on the job.  Don’t forget the last Oregon Governor’s constant equivocation on COVID closure and occupancy policies for hospitality establishments.

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One of my favorite historic Portland dive bars I first visited in 2015 is Kelly’s Olympian.  A May 10, 2023 Willamette Week article is entitled, “The Owner of Kelly’s Olympian Is Despondent About the Fentanyl Den Across the Street”:

“Since it opened in 1902, Kelly’s Olympian, the bar on Southwest Washington Street, has survived two world wars, the Depression, Prohibition, the Great Recession, the 2020 protests and COVID-19.

It’s an open question whether it will survive the fentanyl den across the street between 4th and 5th avenues.”

When I visited Kelly’s, the scene was typical of that until the pandemic – people sitting at picnic tables in front of the bar, a few motorcycles parked out front by patrons who wanted to see the vintage collection of the machines inside and a friendly, engaged and diverse crowd at the bar as described in this Zagat Review:

”a mix of punks, business types and ‘street urchins’ gathers for Pabst and ‘strong’ pours of Jack Daniels….”

And there would always be crowds to enjoy the bands who played there several times each week.  At one point, Kelly’s was purported to have the second highest liquor sales of any establishment in Oregon.

But what attracted many people – both regulars and visitors – were the unique trappings of the bar.  Hanging from the ceiling were about a dozen vintage motorcycles which had each been beautifully restored.

Adding to the flavor were museum quality neon signs, antique gas pumps and historic photos of Portland and an old-fashioned pinball machine.

Our friendly bartender, Mary Kate, when we asked about the bar’s history, showed us the trap door behind the bar and the stairway down to the cellar which although they are now boarded up, used to have a maze of “Shanghai” tunnels:

 “Legend has it that there used to be several secret entrances to the Shanghai Tunnels, Chinese immigrants and dockworkers lived and made their way about the underground of Portland.”  Kelly’s Olympian website

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It should be noted that not all of downtown currently Portland presents the same picture as the area around Kelly’s Olympian.  As stated in the Willamette Week article, the times of prosperity have changed:

“Kelly’s is hanging on ‘by a string,’ says owner Ben Stutz. Blight, crime and untreated mental illness and addiction in downtown Portland are driving customers away, and Stutz is spending $15,000 a month on full-time security guards for Kelly’s and tenants on the floors above

…I would like more police patrols. Just walk the street. Go in and deal with people. Make it uncomfortable for people to break the law. I’d also like to see the governor get some State Police and National Guard out here like they’re doing in San Francisco.

California Gov. Gavin Newsom is not what you’d call a bleeding heart. He took a look at San Francisco and said, ‘We can’t have this happen.’ But our governor isn’t doing that. The mayor talks about a reset. The governor needs to talk about a reset too.”

Next time you are in Portland stop at have a beer or whiskey at Kelly’s and tell them you’re glad they’re still going.   And ask to see the trap door behind the bar!

But Let’s End on a More Uplifting and Ethereal Note!

Those who follow Thebeerchaser know that my favorite brewery is Mount Angel Oregon’s Benedictine Brewery – on the grounds of the Mt. Angel Abbey.  The Brewery is one of only three in the US owned and operated by Benedictine monks.

I was fortunate to get involved in the planning and development in 2016 until the Brewery and St. Michael’s Taproom Taproom opened in November 2018.

It has been extremely successful and Fr. Martin Grassel, the Head Brewer, has developed a regional following for his excellent beers.  ( External photo attribution is at the end of the post. #1)


Recently, he was featured in an episode of “The Beer Hour with Jonathan Wakefield.” The episode covers a wide variety of topics, from the history of monastic brewing to monastic formation and Fr. Martin’s vocation story, to the origins of the Benedictine Brewery.

Since it’s 53 minutes long, I was just going to listen for about ten minutes, but got hooked and listened to the entire thing. He’s a good storyteller!

The Beer Hour with Johnathan Wakefield: Benedictine Brewery’s Father Martin Grassel on Apple Podcasts

But I want to end this post – not with a review of a watering hole – but a movie.  Fr. Stu: Reborn was released by Sony Pictures in December, 2022. 

As unlikely as it seems from his past roles, it stars Mark Wahlberg (who is a devout Catholic) and was produced on a shoestring budget of only $4 million.  Evidently, the film received mixed reviews; however, my wife and I really enjoyed it.  (#2 – #3)

The focus of my interest was the role of the Mt. Angel Seminary.  As stated in the Mount Angel Newsletter:

“An injury ended Stu’s heavyweight professional boxing dreams, and after a succession of short career starts, a motorcycle accident caused him to spend months in hospital care.

In that time of recovery, he realized his vocational call to the priesthood and entered the seminary for the Diocese of Helena. He studied at Mount Angel Seminary from 2004 to 2007 and was ordained in 2007.”

Since I serve on the Abbey Foundation Board, I’ve gotten to know many of the monks, priests and seminarians including Fr. Pius Harding OSB (shown below) a monk who was Fr. Stu’s spiritual director at the Abbey and who just celebrated his 30th anniversary of ordination.  He stated: 

“Stu had a casual, upbeat way about him: very interested in the people around him. He was most generous; as a matter of fact, you had to refrain from admiring things in his presence, or he would buy them for you.”  (#4)

frr pius

During his years in seminary he was diagnosed with a rare autoimmune disease that mimics the symptoms of Lou Gehrig’s disease and for which there is no cure.  The movie chronicles his courageous battle with the disease.

“He took [the illness] on like the fighter he was trained to be,’ recalls Fr. Pius. ‘And he went on to live the vocation of love. I know several who embraced the Catholic faith due to his kind example and zealous catechetical ministry.’”  (#5)

I’m confident that you will enjoy the movie.  Blessings and Cheers

External Photo Attribution

#1.  Benedictine Brewery Facebook Page (https://www.facebook.com/BenedictineBrewery)

#2.  Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mark_Wahlberg_(6908662467).jpg)  Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.  Author:  Eva Rinaldi – 20 February 2012.

#3. Mount Angel Letter (https://www.mountangelabbey.org/fr-stuart-long-lifelong-fighter-for-christ/)

#4  Mount Angel Letter https://www.facebook.com/MountAngelAbbeySeminary/photos/fr-pius-x-harding-osb-celebrates-25-years-of-ordination-at-the-mass-for-trinity-/1612137055508896/?paipv=0&eav=AfZLE-ZipJYEIS3d0endrLmmaDP01ldf2GuMQlXxWffe36RtDUmu0_V1g1Nw0EuDYTY&_rdr)

#6.  Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mt._Angel_Abbey_(Marion_County,_Oregon_scenic_images)_(marDA0213).jpg)  The copyright holder of this file allows anyone to use it for any purpose, provided that the copyright holder is properly attributed. Redistribution, derivative work, commercial use, and all other use is permitted.  Source:  Gary Halvorson, Oregon State Archives.